METEOR-S: Semantic Web Services and Processes
Applying Semantics in Annotation, Quality of Service, Discovery, Composition, Execution

Department of Computer Science
University of Georgia



Semantics are critical to support the next generation of the Web. The important contribution of the “Semantic Web”, vis-à-vis the current Web, is the ability to represent and process descriptions of every resource on the Web. A resource description, informally called its “semantics”, includes that information about the resource that can be used by computers - not just for display purposes, but for using it for automatic processing in various applications.

    Our work focuses on two issues: semantic Web services and process composition. Semantic Web services are Web services with a formal description (semantics) that can enable a better discovery, selection, composition, monitoring, and interoperability. Processes are next steps to carrying out core business activities, such as e-commerce and e-services, and are created from the composition of Web Services or other components.  When all tasks involved in a workflow process are Web Services, we may call such workflows Semantic Web Processes,

    This work is about associating semantics to Web Services, and exploiting it in process composition. The composition process involves a functional perspective and an operational perspective. The functional perspective involves Web Service Discovery, addressing semantic heterogeneity handling. The operational perspective takes form of the research on QoS specification for Web Services and Processes.  METOER-S is a follow on to the METEOR Project on enterprise-wide and multi-organizational workflows.


Quality of Service

Workflow management systems (WfMSs) have been used to support a variety of business processes. As organizations adopt new working models, such as e-commerce, new challenges arise for workflow systems. These challenges include support for the adequate management of quality of service (QoS) and the development of new solutions to facilitate the composition of workflow applications involving Web services. The good management of QoS directly impacts the success of organizations participating in e-commerce activities by better fulfilling customer expectations and achieving customer satisfaction.

    To enable adequate QoS management, research is required to develop mechanisms that specify, compute, monitor, and control the QoS of the products or services to be delivered. The composition of workflows to model e-service applications differs from the design of traditional workflows due to the number of Web services available during the composition process and to their heterogeneity. Two main problems need to be solved: how to efficiently discover Web services and how to facilitate their interoperability.

    To enhance WfMSs with QoS management, we have developed a QoS model that allows for the description of nonfunctional aspects of workflow components, from a quality of service perspective. To automatically compute the overall QoS of a workflow, we have developed a mathematical model and implemented an algorithm (SWR algorithm). Our QoS model and mathematical model have been validated with the deployment and execution of a set of production workflows in the area of genetics. The analysis of the collected data proves that our models provide a suitable framework for estimating, predicting, and analyzing the QoS of production workflows.


Semantic Process (e-Process) Composition

To support, facilitate, and assist the composition of workflow processes involving (Semantic) Web services, we present a solution based on ontologies. We have developed an algorithm that workflow systems and discovery mechanisms can use to find Web services with desired interfaces and operational metrics, and to assist designers in resolving heterogeneity issues among Web services. Our approach provides an important solution to enhance Web service discovery and interoperability.


Graphical Web Process Design, Web Process Enactment, Performance Analysis, and Simulation of Web Processes


Service Composition and Enactment Tool is a software that currently support graphical design  of Web Services with supported Web Service discovery, Composition including input-output matching, Performance Evaluation, and Simulation.


Index words: web services, workflow management systems (WfMSs), Web Service and Web Process quality of service (QoS), Workflow Process and Web Services Composition, Ontology-driven semantic annotation of Web services, Web Service Discovery, Web Process Performance Evaluation.

Semantic Web Process = Workflow process with all components that are (Semantic) Web Services


Faculty:  Amit Sheth, John Miller, I. Budak Arpinar

Active Students:  Abhijit Patil, Swapna Onudkar, Kunal Verma, Rohit Aggarwal

Alumni: Jorge Cardoso, Senthilanand Chadrasekaran, Gregory Silver, Kaarthik Sivashanmugam


METEOR-S Web Service Discovery Infrastructure

METEOR-S Web Process Composition Framework's University Spotlight on LSDIS

Owl Ontology for RosettaNet web service standards

Tutorial and related Web Resources

Jorge Cardoso and Amit Sheth, Semantic Web Processes: Semantics Enabled Annotation, Discovery, Composition and Orchestration of Web Scale Processes, 4th International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering (WISE 2003), December 10-12, 2003, Rome, Italy.  PowerPoint-show PDF

Jorge Cardoso and Amit Sheth, Semantic Web Processes Net Object Days 2003 and MATES03, September 23, 2003, Erfurt, Germany. Abstract Extended Abstract Powerpoint-show PDF

Cardoso, Bussler, Sheth, Fensel: Semantic Web Services and Processes: Semantic Composition and Quality of Service, International Federated Conferences: DOA/ODBASE/CooPIS 2002, Irvine, CA, October 28-29, 2002.  Tutorial Web Resource on Semantic Web Process

John Miller's Web Resource on Web Services for Bioinformatics


Amit Sheth, Semantic Web Process Lifecycle: Role of Semantics in Annotation, Discovery, Composition and Orchestration, invited talk at WWW 2003 Workshop on E-Services and the Semantic Web, Budapest, Hungary, May 20, 2003. Abstract Slides: pdf powerpoint-show htm

"Web Services Choreography," panel at WWW2003, Budapest, May 22, 2003. Panel Intro

Kaarthik Sivashanmugam and Kunal Verma, Adding Semantics to Web Services Standards, The 2003 International Conference on Web Services (ICWS'03), Las Vegas. June 23 - 26, 2003. Slides: pdf, powerpoint-show,

Amit Sheth, Semantic Web Processes: Semantics to exploit Web Services on a Global Scale, IBM TJ Watson, July 10, 2003. Slides: pdf, powerpoint-show

METEOR-S  publications (see LSDIS Lab Library for latest information and downloads)

Cardoso, J. (2002). Quality of Service and Semantic Composition of Workflows. Ph.D. Dissertation. Department of Computer Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. [PPT presentation].

Cardoso, J., J. Miller, A. Sheth and J. Arnold (2002). "Modeling Quality of Service for Workflows and Web Service Processes." Technical Report, 2002.

Cardoso, J. and A. Sheth (2002). "Implementing QoS Management for Workflow Systems." Technical Report.

Cardoso, J. and A. Sheth (2002). Process Quality of Service Specification. EI3-IC workshop at NIST, Gaithersburg, MD.

Cardoso, J. and A. Sheth (2002). "Semantic e-Workflow Composition." Journal of Intelligent Information Systems (JIIS). (to appear, 2003).

Cardoso, J., A. Sheth and J. Miller (2002). Workflow Quality of Service. International Conference on Enterprise Integration and Modeling Technology and International Enterprise Modeling Conference (ICEIMT/IEMC’02), Valencia, Spain, Kluwer Publishers.

Chandrasekaran, S., G. Silver, J. A. Miller, J. S. Cardoso and A. P. Sheth (2002). Composite Web Service: Performance Evaluation and Simulation. Proceedings of the 2002 Winter Simulation Conference, San Diego, California.

Chadrasekaran, S., J. A. Miller, G. Silver, I. B. Arpinar and A. Sheth (2002). Performance Analysis and Simulation of Composite Web Services, Electronic Markets: The International Journal of Electronic Commerce and Business Media (EM),  (to appear, 2003).

Chandrasekaran S., G. Silver, J. A. Miller, J. S. Cardoso and A. P. Sheth (2002). "Web Service Technologies and their Synergy with Simulation,", Proceedings of the 2002 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC'02), San Diego, California (December 2002) pp. 606-615.

Kochut, K., J. Arnold, A. Sheth, J. Miller, E. Kraemer, B. Arpinar and J. Cardoso (2003). "IntelliGEN:  A Distributed Workflow System for Discovering Protein-Protein Interactions." Distributed and Parallel Information Systems, an International Journal (Special Issue on Bioinformatics), January.

Miller, J. A., J. S. Cardoso and G. Silver (2002). Using Simulation to Facilitate Effective Workflow Adaptation. Proceedings of the 35th Annual Simulation Symposium (ANSS'02), San Diego, California. pp. 177-181.

Ruoyan, Z., Arpinar, B., Aleman-Meza, B., Automatic Composition of Semantic Web Services, The 2003 International Conference on Web Services (ICWS'03), June 2003.

Sheth. A., J. Cardoso, J. Miller and K. Kochut (2002). Service-oriented Middleware. 6th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (SCI 2002), Orlando, FL.

Sheth A., J. Cardoso, J. A. Miller, K. J. Kochut and M. Kang, "QoS for Service-Oriented Middleware," Proceedings of the 6th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (SCI'02), Vol. 8, Orlando, Florida (July 2002) pp. 528-534

Sheth A. and Miller J. A. , "Web Services: Incremental Technical Advance with Huge Practical Impact," IEEE Intelligent Systems, Trends & Controversies, (IEEEIS), January/February, 2003, pp. 78-80.

Silver G., J. A. Miller, A. P. Sheth, J. Myers, A. Maduko and R. Jafri, "Modeling and Simulation of Quality of Service for Composite Web Services," Proceedings of the 7th World Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (SCI'03), Orlando, Florida (July 2003) pp. -.

Sivashanmugam, K., Verma, K., Sheth, A., Miller, J., Adding Semantics to Web Services Standards, Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Web Services (ICWS'03), Las Vegas, Nevada (June 2003) pp. 395 - 401.

Sivashanmugam, K., Miller, J., Sheth, A., Verma, K.,  Framework for Semantic Web Process Composition, Technical Report, Department of Computer Science, University of Georgia, June 2003.

Sivashanmugam, K.. (2003), The METEOR-S Framework for Semantic Web Process Composition , M.S. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA. Slides: pdf, powerpoint-show

Sivashanmugam, K., Sheth A., Miller J., Verma K., Aggarwal R., Rajasekaran P., Metadata and Semantics for Web Services and Processes, Book Chapter, Datenbanken und Informationssysteme, Festschrift zum 60. Geburtstag von Gunter Schlageter, Publication Hagen, October 2003-09-26

Verma, K., Sivashanmugam, K., Sheth, A., Patil, A., Oundhakar, S. and Miller, J. METEOR–S WSDI: A Scalable Infrastructure of Registries for Semantic Publication and Discovery of Web Services, Journal of Information Technology and Management (to appear, 2003).

Verma, K., Akkiraju R., Goodwin R., Doshi P., Lee J., On Accommodating Inter Service Dependencies in Web Process Flow Composition, AAAI Spring Symposium 2004. (accepted) pdf

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